Treating Mental Health and Forensic Populations

No longer is it possible to assess and/or treat a mental health population without also interfacing with forensic issues such as legal infractions, Courts, violence, sexual behavior problems, delinquency, crime, Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity, substance abuse, and others. The training and approaches to the mental health population is different than that for a forensic population. So what is to be done, if a person has both issues? We must be cross trained for dually affected clients.

How Are the Populations Different

A Mental Health population is comprised primarily Axis I disorders, such as Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Major Depression, PTSD, and Anxiety Disorders. Daily functioning is on a continuum. Recovery is quick for some and slow for others and is also on a continuum. Well controlled intermittent, mild to moderate episodes of a mood or anxiety disorder will not necessarily interfere with daily functioning. Someone with severe, chronic Schizophrenia or Mood Disorder requiring periodic hospitalizations and extensive community support, will have impairment in daily functioning. Goals for these folks are often pro-social and involve being an active member of society. A therapist can be fairly sure that the mental health client without forensic issues will be relatively honest in his or her interactions and the therapist can take most of what he/she says at face value. An emphasis on a strengths model works well when no personality disorder is involved.

A forensic population can be defined as having personality disorders, interpersonal difficulties, behavioral problems, multiple problems and life long courses of various levels of dysfunction or difficulty. Again, this population fills the full spectrum of effective daily functioning. However, social functioning is often the most severe impairment. There are issues of trust, appropriate relationships, ego centrism, moral development, honesty, manipulation, and danger to self and others. They often have a negative view of themselves and others, especially authority figures. Moral development is often delayed leaving them at the egocentric stage of development. This means that what serves the self is what matters and empathy for others and the ability to have an honest relationship with another person may not yet have developed. Their goals are often self-serving.

The capacity to understand the importance of the best interest of the group through laws and rules that we voluntarily follow, may not be well understood. Many, if not most, have histories of childhood abuse, neglect, or exposure to domestic violence. The assessment and interventions with this population is necessarily different that those for a people with no Axis II disorder or trait. The people with forensic issues do not always tell the truth because of their lack of trust in relationships. The therapist cannot take what he/she says at face value. The therapist must separate the sincere from the manipulative moves for self-gain. The internal boundaries are such that they need the therapist to put external boundaries into place for them. Information must be checked with other sources of information.

How Assessment Tools Differ

In a mental health population, assessment can quite effectively be done through instruments such as the MMPI-A, BASC, and MACI. These self-report tools are quite sufficient for this population and will elucidate psychological dynamics and mental illness, if present. Self-report is not as much of an issue as it is in the forensic population, where third party verification is more important. However when a youth has multiple problems, both mental health and forensic, a combination of tools is preferred.

Forensic evaluation tools rely less on self-report because of the trust issues and because it is not always in the client’s best interest to be completely truthful. Self-report assessment instruments can be used, but third party and official reports should also be used in the evaluation phase of a forensic assessment. Courts are concerned with public safety, therefore, the need for tools that assess future risk of dangerousness to others. Risk of future aggression and sexual behavior problems that have been derived from statistical models (actuarial tools) should be part of the evaluation since clinical assessment of risk of future dangerousness is only a little better than chance. While risk assessments are not perfect, they are better than clinical judgment in this area.

How are Interventions Different?

Major Mental Illnesses, while often chronic, can often be very effectively treated with medication and therapy. At the higher functioning end of the continuum, therapy can be supportive, psychotherapeutic, family, or cognitive behavioral. Therapists are trained to accept what the client presents and start where the client is functioning and how the client sees the world. The clients are usually self-motivated and seek therapy voluntarily. They accept responsibility for their behaviors and for making changes in their lives. Use of a strengths model is often very effective. Many people recover fully and lead quite “normal,” non-disrupted lives. When someone is on the lower end of the continuum, with major disruption in every day functioning (work and family),despite medication and therapy, major supports for housing, jobs, and activities of daily living and medication are needed for a very long time, perhaps a life time. However, their life goals are often still pro-social. Serlf-directed care works well with the mental health population without Axis II diagnoses.

In the area of intervention, different approaches are needed for the forensic population. Some level of social and family dysfunction is generally intergenerational and lifelong. These clients are often Court ordered to an assessment or therapy or they are having significant problems at work or within the family causing others to seek assessment or therapy for them. They do not always accept responsibility for their actions or for changing. There are skill deficits that need to be addressed, such as social skills, anger management, and problem solving. You cannot take what these clients say at face value. Third party information is always needed. This is because you need to trust someone in order to be honest with them and most of these folks have been abused, neglected, or exposed to domestic violence and a suspicious arm’s length treatment of others is a coping strategy that is difficult to give up.

This population often has multiple problems so that Multi-systemic Therapy that approaches many areas that need to be addressed is often effective (treating the whole person). Group work and trauma therapies are also good tools. Self-directed therapy may not be effective because of the need to protect oneself from what may appear to be an unsafe world. Nurturing, setting good boundaries, and structure are essential in this work. Motivational interviewing and stages of change can be very helpful. When clients have issues in the mental health and forensic arenas, both approaches must be used to the extent possible.

Conclusions

Clients in a mental health setting range from the single diagnosis of a major mental Illness to the dual diagnosis of a major mental illness and a personality disorder and/or forensic/legal issue. The approaches to these dissimilar populations is unique when clients are dually diagnosed, both approaches are needed. Assessments and treatment for a mental health population can be self-directed and strengths based.

However, the approach for the forensic population cannot be self-directed because the client’s goals are often antisocial and by definition counter to the best interests of society. The therapist or evaluator cannot accept everything the client says at face value because not being honest is part of the disorder that the therapist is treating. Motivational interviewing seems to blend the views of traditional mental health and forensics in a way that is beneficial for the client and society.

Italian Food – An Overview

Italian food is more than a form of nourishment; it’s a way of life in a country where family, friendship and feasts are all indelibly linked. Italian food is simple, vibrant and good for you. From roasts to risotto, pasta to preserves, soups to sauces, Italian food is popular all year round. Italian food is highly famed: greatly loved and tirelessly imitated the world over, it has been a source of endless pleasure and joie-de-vivre in countries far and wide. Italian food is not just for Italians, but for everyone.

Cooking

For hundreds of years Italian cooking has followed a very simple principle: food is best when it’s cooked fresh and in season. I am a great fan of Italian cuisine, and a firm believer that cooking is an art, not a task. Most traditional Italian dishes as we know today, are on the whole derived from simple peasant cookery, for example the Pizza, which could be found a couple of centuries ago on the streets of Naples being sold by street vendors to those that had no cooking facilities of their own at home. The regional cooking depends on a number of factors, not only as to what ingredients are most abundant each region, but also historical factors. The recipes of Northern and Southern Italian dishes are quite different and use different methods of cooking. With the exception of a few areas near lakes that exert a moderating influence, Northern Italy is too cold for olive trees to grow, and as a result much of the population used butter for cooking.

Pasta

Pasta, no doubt, plays a large part in most traditional Italian food, and few cultures know how to employ a tomato the way that Italians can. Pasta and olive oil are considered the characteristics of southern Italian food, while northern food focuses on rice and butter (although today there are many exceptions). Italian food is all about combinations of delicious local flavours, a simple sauce, a sprinkling of Parmesan and of course real Italian pasta.

Ingredients

Ingredients used in Italian cooking, such as pasta, olive oil, garlic, tomatoes and red wine have proved to be contributory factors to a healthier lifestyle. Finding the right balance of ingredients is vital in creating vibrant good food. Although there are essential ingredients that every Italian kitchen should have, basil, garlic and olive oil, the most important ingredient is creativity. Italian cookery is exceptionally varied, nutritious and healthy; traditions have been handed down from one family to the next over the centuries, and are associated mainly with country life in that dishes are directly linked to what the Earth produces over the changing seasons: in other words, wholesome cooking whose goodness depends on all-natural ingredients.

Somebody once said “The trouble with eating Italian food is that 5 or 6 days later you’re hungry again”. Italian food is not just for Italians, but for everyone. Did you know that Italian food is the most popular cuisine for eating out throughout the world? I think the success of Italian food is that it’s the food that is easiest to live with.

Role Of Food Service Consultants

If you have ever received bad service in a restaurant, you know that it can be a sales killer for any restaurant business. However, if you desire to have your restaurant be among the better restaurants in town and you aspire to be the best in your niche, then, providing great service is one of the best ways to earn a strong reputation. And one person that can help you deliver great is a professional food service consultant. The professional food service consultant can advise and give you the guidance you on the proper service techniques for your concept and assist in training how to deliver great service.

Providing great service is complex and needs all departments to coordinate their training and to achieve great service. It effects each food service departments such as banqueting, catering, room service and kitchen. Good food and beverage managers learn how to organize each of these departments to achieve great service.

Providing great service in hotels is even more complicated because there are so many departments involved. Every department imaginable including housekeeping, human resources and purchasing can have an impact on service. Different types of hotels have different food service needs as well. Little wonder that providing great service is so complicated. Food service consultants are the experts who know exactly what is needed by different restaurants.

Food service consultants play an active role in recipe development. They take on a number of services like:

– Development of food products

– Compilation and preparation of recipes

– Developing new ideas for recipes

– Innovating new product range

– Product management from planning to cooking and presentation

– Analyses of the market

– Analyses of competitors

– Recipe development

– Menu development advice and planning

– Catering

– Product tasting and evaluation

– Food styling and presentation

– Food recommendations

In addition to the above, food service consultants also focus on the nutritive value of foods so that the restaurant can serve foods that appeal to a large number of customers. Food consultants can even provide food specific nutrient analysis to show the exact number of calories, protein, carbs and vitamins in particular foods. This is important as many people are becoming more health conscious. A well trained food consultant can help you modify your recipes so that they are flavorful, visually appealing and nutritious.

Along with recipe development, good food consultants also can support the training of your people.

Therefore, if your restaurant business seems to be lagging behind and you just don’t know what to do, consider contacting a professional food consultant to assist in supporting your needs. You could also depend on food and beverage consultants to produce attractive pictures and sales materials for the restaurant.

Great food and service is an integral component to your restaurant business. A restaurant with excellent food service is the foundation for popular.

Alternative Health Careers – Five Occupational Options

As the field of natural healing therapies continues to grow, so does the demand for alternative health careers. Some of the diverse healthcare occupations that alternative and complementary medicine offer prospective students include healing arts disciplines in massage therapy, homeopathy, herbal medicine, natural health, and acupuncture, among many others.

Today’s alternative health careers like massage therapy require specific training and education; including an expanding minimum standard of 500 instructional hours comprised of basic sciences (anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, and pathology), Swedish massage, deep tissue massage, and sports massage. Other related studies like CPR and first aid, as well as business management and client communications are commonly integrated into this program of study.

Homeopathy is also a unique option to those seeking alternative health careers. Similar to most medical programs, homeopathic courses require rigorous educational studies like anatomy, biochemistry, homeopathic philosophy, physiology, materia medica, and other comprehensive coursework. To successfully acquire alternative health careers in homeopathy, individuals should review educational prerequisites as most homeopathic colleges and schools typically require some formal training and education prior to enrollment.

If you’re drawn to alternative health careers that involve herbal medicine, a number of holistic education programs including Chinese medicine, naturopathy, homeopathy and natural health commonly offer herbology and aromatherapy as part of their curricula. Choose from beginner classes to more advanced training options like earning your degree in herbal sciences.

Natural health professions are also part of the vast array of alternative health careers. Earn your diploma or certificate as a natural health practitioner after you’ve completed an in-depth course in natural healing therapies like massage, aromatherapy, herbal medicine, Reiki, and reflexology. Healing arts schools vary in subject matter, so check with prospective schools prior to applying.

Of these alternative health careers, acupuncture and Oriental medicine practitioners probably have one of the most unique educational foundations. In addition to learning both Eastern and Western medicine philosophies, acupuncture education offers a rare look into Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) principles and theories; including needling techniques, Tai Chi, moxibustion, Chinese herbal medicine, Tuina, Qi gong, and even Chinese medical language, among others. Prospective students should be aware, however, that alternative health careers in acupuncture do require several years of dedication.

30 Points, How Science Has Changed Our Lives

If we look life 100 years ago, and compare that with the today's life, we will notice that Science has dramatically changed human life. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the effect of Science on human life rapidly changed. Today, science has a profound effect on the way we live, largely through technology, the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.

Some forms of scientific inventions have changed our lives entirely. For example the refrigerator has played a major role in maintaining public health ever since its invention. The first automobile, dating from the 1880s, made use of many advances in physics, mathematics and engineering; the first electronic computers emerged in the 1940s from simultaneous advances in electronics, physics and mathematics. Today we have extra high- speed super computers with 100% accuracy.

Science has enormous influence on our lives. It provides the basis of much of modern technology – the tools, materials, techniques, and sources of power that make our lives and work easier. The discoveries of scientists also help to shape our views about ourselves and our place in the universe.

Research in food technology has created new ways of preserving and flavoring what we eat. Research in industrial chemistry has created a vast range of plastics and other synthetic materials, which have thousands of uses in the home and in industry. Synthetic materials are easily formed into complex shapes and can be used to make machines, electrical, and automotive parts, scientific, technical and industrial instruments, decorative objects, containers, packing materials and many other items.

1: The use of science in daily life has helped us a good deal in solving problems, dealing with the maintenance of health, production and preservation of food, construction of houses and providing communication and trans-portational (related to transport) facilities. With the help of Science we have controlled epidemics and much other kind of diseases. Now we know the basic structure of DNA and Genetic Engineering is conducting research to find out the right and correct Gene Therapy to overcome all the diseases.

2: Science has changed the people and their living, life style, food habits, sleeping arrangements, earning methods, the way of communication between people and recreational activities. All kinds of music systems, computer games, electronic video games, DVDs, cinema entertainment and communication have been brought to our door with the help of Science. The life of man was very different from what it used to be 100 years back. Science has given ears to the deaf, eyes to the blind and limbs to the crippled. Science has adequately, energetically and productively advanced, changed, civilized, enhanced and progressed human life. Science has brought sophistication to human life.

In short science has changed, improved, enhanced, modified and refined human life in all ways.

3: Today with the help of Science we can explain what was strange and mysterious for the people of the past. The Science of Genetics opening new doors of understanding the human gene and cell.

4: Now human beings have become more critical and less fearful than our fore-fathers and ancestors.

5: Two hundred years ago death rate among children was very high. In those days seven out of eight babies died before their first birthday. Now with the help of vaccines, medications and proper health care system life expectancy has improved. Now people live longer and safe lives as compared to 200 years ago. Biochemical research is responsible for the antibiotics and vaccinations that protect us from infectious diseases, and for a wide range of other drugs used to defeat specific health problems. As a result, the majority of people on the planet now live longer and healthier lives than ever before.

6: After that and up to the age of 12 one used to fall in a prey to diseases like small pox, measles, whooping- cough, scarlet fever and diphtheria. Now Science has defeated these diseases.

7: At a later stage again one was under constant threat of yellow fever, malaria, typhus, cholera, typhoid and influenza. Today we have vaccines and medical aid to cope with these health problems. Further research is underway to find out the causes and treatment of these and other diseases.

8: From one person the disease used to spread among the other people. It is called Epidemics. Now with the help of Vaccines and Medications we have defeated these diseases. But still Science has to do more research and has to fight with other arenas of diseases.

9: Life was uncertain. It was rare to see to somebody thirty years old because due to diseases many people died earlier than the age of thirty. These conditions were prevailing just a short while ago.

10: In everyday life, we have to communicate with different friends and relatives, various official people and for general purposes. And many people to be contacted can be at very far off distances. However, time and distance both have been conquered by Science. Whether we want to communicate or travel, both are possible quickly, briskly and expeditiously.

11: These days there are very little chances of babies catching diseases, because births normally take place in hospitals under the supervision of a team of specialist doctors. Science has invented vaccines for young babies to protect them against future life illnesses.

12: Young people are also given medical treatment in time and these days the man lives for about seventy years.

13: Science and scientific methods have helped in finding out the cause of disease and its prevention.

14: Sanitary condition in the past was deplorable. Now we have better sanitary systems.

15: The city streets were unpaved; there was no proper drainage system. Garbage and other refuse was seen everywhere. Pigs were seen wandering through the streets. People got water from filthy wells. Now filtered mineral water is available to overcome diseases. Solid waste management is not a problem now a days, it is the duty of the city municipal committees to manage and dump it with the latest machinery and equipments

16: Now all these defects have gone. There is cleanliness everywhere. It is illegal to throw garbage into the streets. There is a proper drainage system and new and improved methods for solid waste management as it has been told earlier. There are separate departments that bother about sanitary condition of the towns.

17: A century ago for house hold purposes water was carried from wells outside in buckets. It sometimes proved injurious to human health. Moreover, it was insufficient for the daily needs. But now water filters have become a thing of common usage.

18: Now there is sufficient supply of water in cities. For example Los Angeles gets water through pipes from Colorado River, which is 340 miles away. This water is supplied to Los Angeles after the proper water filtration process.

19: With the help of science there is change in our food also. We get varieties of food. In the past, food could not be preserved. But now the quick freezing methods have made possible preservation possible. Due to modern technologies like dehydration and sterilization there is no chance of food poisoning. We get all kinds of fruits, meats and vegetables. Even those fruits and vegetables which are out of season.

20: Not only our eating habits are changed, but also there are improvements in our houses. Means of transport has also undergone a big improvement and change.

21: Science has also changed our attitudes. Superstitions have been discarded, because there is no scientific basis for them. Now people do not fear cloud thunders.

22: Now people no more believe that diseases are caused by evil spirits.

23: Astrology and fortune- telling have lost popularity as compared to 100 years ago. Nobody now fears black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13. Because science has proved that these kinds of fears are un-scientific and illogical.

24: Science has changed the longstanding false notions of the people, which are not supported by Scientific Facts.

25: Research in the field of science and technology has made people open-minded and cosmopolitan, because the Scientist does not like to travel on the beaten track and he always tries to find out new things, new explorations, new discoveries and new inventions.

26: Science has also brought medical equipments that help to save human life. The kidney dialysis machine facilitates many people to survive kidney diseases that would once have proved fatal, and artificial valves allow sufferers of coronary heart disease to return to active living. Since the 1980s, lasers have been used in the treatment of painful kidney stones. Lasers are used when kidney stones fail to pass through the body after several days, it provides a quick and low-pain way to break up the stone and allow the stones to be easily passed through the body. This technique is called Lithotripsy.

27: Arthroscopic surgery is a technique using fiber optics to probe complex joints such as knee, shoulder, ankle and wrist to evaluate injury. It is a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an "arthroscopy" while making repairs through a small incision.

28: 200 years ago nobody even knows that human body parts can be replaced or transplanted. Now kidney transplant is widely used to save human lives around the globe. Dr. Christian Bernard first of all invented the method of heart transplant. Eye transplant techniques are used in these days to see again this beautiful world, for those who have lost their eyes. These all are the blessings of Science.

29: Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) waves are allocated for variety of uses, including television, cellular phones, public safety radios, business radios, military aircraft communications, military radar, cordless phones, baby monitors, etc. So, whether someone is watching over-the-air TV, talking on cell phone, having police / fire / ambulance dispatched to an emergency they are experiencing, or having national airspace protected by military aircraft, they all are benefitting from the science that has allowed the use of UHF waves. Even it is used to treat some illnesses.

30: For communication, now we have fixed wire telephones, moveable wireless phone sets, cordless phones, mobile phones, wireless, video conferencing, Internet, Broad Band Internet, E-mail, Social Networks, Satellite Communication and many other ways to communicate. These all are blessings of Science. Today we are better aware of what is happening around the globe due to satellite television channels. The benign and benefits of science for human life are endless.

The Benefits of Having a Healthy Heart

The heart plays a vital role in keeping the body alive. The heart is a pump that pumps life through the body. The heart has two main functions. It pumps blood to the lungs to retrieve oxygen and then pumps that oxygen into the blood and transports it around the rest of the body.

The heart is actually muscle and you have to keep training the muscle to maintain its conditioning. As the saying goes if you don’t use it you will lose it, and this also applies to the heart.

When the heart is in top condition the body works like a highly maintained car engine, it runs perfectly. A heart that is healthy and well taken care off is more able to cope with demands and stress that is put on the body. As the body has been designed to move it is the constant of physical activity that keeps your heart fit.

A healthy heart can provide you and your body with many benefits as follows:

• By acquiring the habit of doing physical exercise everyday you can greatly reduce your risk of heart disease and coronary heart attack. These exercises do not have to be intensive are done for a long period. As little as 15 minutes a day of exercise that makes you breathless will greatly improve the health of the heart.

• A heart that is healthy and strong will enable the body to function more effectively. This will enable the body to take on more strenuous activities and the common daily tasks are done with efficiency and comfort.

• A trained and healthy heart works more efficiently than one that is out of condition. This means the it beats at a lower rate when the body is resting. Over time this means the heart works less and does not wear out.

• The great thing about your heart is that it has the ability to heal and repair itself. For example, if it has already been damaged by heart disease it can be repaired through the proper healing processes and activities.

As you can see the heart plays a very important role and as it is a muscle of the body you have to keep training it to keep it healthy. The best way to do this is to look at your current lifestyle and see if any improvements can be made. For example, you could cut down on high fat foods and introduce more fresh fruit and vegetables into your diet. If you do not take any exercise then maybe you should consider joining a gym or go for a jog a couple of times a week to keep you and your heart in shape.

Always seek medical advise before changing your diet or taking physical exercise if you have a health condition.

Web Designing And Seo

Technologies are improving day by day. The days were gone where a new brand went through a lot of troubles to be famous and well-known. It needed a lot of advertisement to come to the attraction of folks. Televisions, newspapers, and magazines are some mediums to promote a brand. But it was really tiresome as it takes a long time and process. A brand could be lost easily in the crowd of competitors. Reaching people was tough and complicated. But those days were gone and today a new item does not face many troubles for its promotion. It is because of the invention of the internet. This highly advanced technology has made everything easy and fast. From booking a flight ticket to communicating one far away from a place becomes easy and it is by the influence of the internet. The internet has entered in everyone’s home very casually and has made lives more comfortable and swift.
Now business promotion is not a big matter to the businesspersons and they have got many useful and effective ways to make brands popular and well-known. One of the easiest and effective ways is website making. You can call that it is an imperative task for every business and by using this skill a business can reach its highest level of success. When a new brand is marketed it needs to be popular for increasing its sell and profit. And it is the best option to create an innovative and informative website for the brand. Website making is a tough task also as it needs the highest efficiency. You can get many assurances about the services as there are many designers but it is a challenge to find an innovative and experienced designing team for the purpose.
Your website is the face of what you provide to the people. It can say everything about your taste, choice, and eminence. Thus, it should be created sincerely and in an efficient manner that it can attract a huge number of visitors easily with its first glimpse. When a visitor visits your website he leaves it immediately if there is no interesting issue in it. And making your website interesting and attractive, you need a good and experienced website designer or a designing team that is efficient, creative, and resourceful. Searching on the internet, you will be able to find out the best Web Design Adelaide that can support you from the initial stage. A creative designer inputs all your essential data and images to your website that visitors get the total familiarity about your business.
A creative website making does not work fruitfully if it is not promoted on the internet. And it is called SEO, the service that gives your brand a higher rank on the search engines like Google. When a visitor searches a product he will be impressive by your position if it has a higher position. He is more likely want to choose a business that has a good and reputed position. And a good and skilled Adelaide SEO team can create the miracle by the most innovative and advanced process. SEO is an imperative task to increase your business and brand name. Chose the team carefully and enjoy a gainful business.

The Importance of Physical Fitness

In its most general meaning, physical fitness is a general state of good physical health. Obtaining and maintaining physical fitness is a result of physical activity, proper diet and nutrition and of course proper rest for physical recovery. In its simplest terms, physical fitness is to the human body what fine-tuning is to an engine. It enables people to perform up to their potential. Regardless of age, fitness can be described as a condition that helps individuals look, feel and do their best. Thus, physical fitness trainers, describe it as the ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with left over energy to enjoy leisure-time activities and meet emergency demands. Specifically true for senior citizens, physical fitness is the ability to endure, bear up, withstand stress and carry on in circumstances where an unfit person could not continue.

In order for one to be considered physically fit, the heart, lungs, and muscles have to perform at a certain level for the individual to continue feeling capable of performing an activity. At the same time, since what humans do with their bodies directly affects the state of mind, fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional expression.

Physical fitness is often divided into the following categories in order for people to be able examine its components or parts. Particularly, physical fitness is judged by:

1. Cardiovascular endurance: This is the ability of the body to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues and to remove wastes over sustained periods of time.

2. Muscular strength & endurance: Strength deals with the ability of the muscle to exert force for a brief time period, while endurance is the ability of a muscle, or group of muscles, to sustain repeated contractions or to continue to apply force against an inert object.

3. Flexibility: This denotes the ability to move joints and use muscles through their full range of motion.

4. Body composition: Considered as one of the components of fitness, composition refers to the body in terms of lean mass (muscle, bone, vital tissue, and organs) and fat mass. Actually, the optimal ratio of fat to lean mass is an indication of fitness. Performing the right set of exercises can help people get rid off body fat and increase or maintain muscle mass.

Advantages to Computers in the Food & Beverage Industry

Computers have revolutionized the food and beverage industry as they have nearly every other industry. Computers have had positive, measurable effects on the front end and back end of hospitality operations. Computers systems have improved employee performance, and food and beverage quality and consistency. Within the food and beverage industry there is no longer a question of should technology be used, but rather a question of which technology to use? In the food and beverage business, computers are here to stay.

In the hospitality industry, customer service is an absolute critical factor for success. Computers are helping in this area in several ways. In many restaurants, the wait staff can process various forms of payment at guest tables, which allows guest to leave directly from their table without the need to stop at a centralized checkout station. This has removed long unsightly lines, which annoy customers, and disrupt the flow of traffic in food and beverage businesses. This service is made possible by either small hand held computers which handle credit card transactions using wireless technology, or via remote point of sale systems that interact with a central computer system. This improves the customers dining experience, which should be the goal of any food service business.

A key management concern of any food and beverage business is the profit margin. In this vital area of business, computers have also proven to be an indispensable tool. Computer systems help manage the entire food service process from ordering the ingredients needed to produce menu items, to forecasting the amount of items to prepare for each dining period based on historical patterns. This helps to reduce wasted food, which is very expensive and comes out of the businesses profit. It also helps in preparing menu items before hand, which reduces customer wait time. Computer can also forecast with high accuracy rates the volume of business to be expected which allows managers to properly staff their business. This is vital because having too much staff on hand can consume unnecessary amounts of payroll, and not having enough staff on hand will cause customer service problems.

Computers are also being used in very innovative ways by some food and beverage businesses. For instance, Darden Restaurants that owns and operates the Red lobster and Olive Garden chains uses computers to help choose new building sites. This computer system uses a software program called the Darden Site Analyzer. The software gathers critical information needed to select a site, such as demographics, distance to other restaurants and customer information specific to the Darden business model. The program then analyzes the site and provides a series of reports to help Darden make the final decision. Darden plans to improve the software so that it can evaluate things such as whether a new Darden restaurant will negatively effect other Darden restaurants in the same area.

Computer systems have become a vital part of all aspects of the food and beverage industry, they help with purchasing decisions, inventory control, employee scheduling and training, and customer acquisition and retention. A leading indicator of this growing trend is the fact that many hospitality training programs now include computer and technology courses in the curriculum.

Each year innovators are creating more unique ways that technology can be used to enhance the overall commercial dining experience. Computers make out of home dining a more enjoyable experience for the consumer and a more profitable manageable experience for business managers and owners.

(c) 2006, Marcus Barber

5 Advantages of a Home Made Ice Cream Maker

Ice cream is one of the worlds’ favorite comfort foods. It just seems to make everything better, don’t you agree? You can mix it with fruits, custard, wafers, chocolates, nuts, brownies, cheeses and other stuff that people like, to give it different wonderful flavors. There are even eccentric flavors such as squid, wasabi, chicken, and bacon! Ice cream has been enjoyed by the elite from as early as second century B.C., and as its goodness became known, more and more people hungered after it which gave birth to its massive production in the 1800s.

Surprisingly, not a lot of people know that you don’t have to look for a gelateria or sherbet shop every time you want some dessert. Through developments in technology, you can now make your own frozen dessert according to your tastes. Ice cream makers are available in the market and can be purchased in almost any appliance shops or online store. Some think that these machines are expensive but the truth is they have many advantages that can outweigh their prices.

  1. One of the main advantages of having a homemade ice cream maker is the ability to create healthy desserts anytime. Unexpected guests may always visit one’s home and it can be a real treat to serve them delicious homemade desserts such as sorbets, sherbert and yogurt. You can always lug one of these over to a friend’s house to have an impromptu party, as most of them can be easily cleaned and stored after without hassle.
  2. Another good thing about these machines is that they can be used to make different ice cream flavors effortlessly. Right after you create one mix, you can go ahead and pour it into a freezer bowl and make another one. Even a cheaper model can make tons of flavors since most of these machines can create desserts in as little as 20 minutes.
  3. Aside from portability and ease of use, the homemade stuff is healthier than most frozen desserts bought in the store. You may not be so sure whether the ice cream that you are about to buy from the grocery has been defrosted and frozen back several times which can lose its flavor and health benefits. Having a homemade ice cream maker gives you the option to create your own flavor and to put ingredients which you think are beneficial to you.
  4. If you are looking for a quality machine for a fraction of the price, you may also look into buying a durable ice cream maker online. A durable one can last a long time and it can be very good investment if you are planning to use it very often. Some of the trusted brands in the market are Cuisinart, Hamilton Beach, Lello and KitchenAid. They can be easily purchased online where you can also read feedback from users so you can assess if their features are apt for your needs.
  5. Last but not the least, having a homemade ice cream maker saves you time than going out and looking for the flavor that you want. You do not need to be a professional to create new flavors. All you need to do is to look for a recipe and gather all the ingredients and you can make as much ice cream as you want.

Making healthy desserts should not be too hard if you have all the things that you need. Whether you have a pricey ice cream maker or a cheaper model, enjoying healthy desserts is always possible at the comfort of your own home.